ACP 13


Lieutenant-general william joseph hardee (see main description for short history)

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William joseph hardee was born on october 12th 1815, to sarah ellis and major john hardee at the “rural felicity” estate in camden county, georgia. He graduated from the united states military academy at west point in 1838, placed 26th in a class of 45) and was commissioned a second lieutenant in the 2nd u.S. Dragoons. During the seminole wars (183542), he was stricken with illness, and while hospitalized he met and married elizabeth dummett. After he recovered, the army sent him to france to study military tactics in 1840. In the mexican-american war, hardee served in the army of occupation under zachary taylor and won two brevet promotions (to brevet major for medelin and vera cruz, and to lieutenant colonel for st. Augustin). He was captured on april 25, 1846 at carricitos ranch, texas, and exchanged on may 11 1846. Now serving under winfield scott, hardee was wounded at la rosia, mexico in 1847. After the war, he led units of texas rangers and soldiers in texas. After his wife died in 1853, he returned to west point as a tactics instructor and served as commandant of cadets from 1856 to 1860. He served as the senior major in the 2nd u.S. Cavalry (later renamed the 5th u.S. Cavalry) when that regiment was formed in 1855 and then the lieutenant colonel of the 1st u.S. Cavalry just before the american civil war began. Best known for his publication in 1855 rifle and light infantry tactics for the exercise and maneuvers of troops when acting as light infantry or riflemen. Although printed at the behest of secretary of war jefferson davis and, popularly known as hardee’s tactics, which became the best-known drill manual of the civil warhardee would resign his united states army commission on january 31st, 1861, when his home state of georgia seceded from the union. He joined the confederate states army as a colonel on march 7th 1861 and, was given command of forts morgan and gaines in alabama. He was subsequently promoted to brigadier general on june 17th and, to major general on october 7th 1861. By october 10, 1862, he was one of the first confederate lieutenant generals. His initial assignment as a general officer was to organize a brigade of arkansas regiments and he impressed his men and fellow officers by solving difficult logistical supply problems and for the thorough training he gave his brigade. For this hardee would receive his nickname, “old reliable”. Called to join general albert sidney johnston’s army of mississippi as a corps commander for the battle of shiloh. It was during this engagement that he was wounded there in the arm on april 6, 1862. Johnston was subsequently killed at shiloh and hardee’s corps joined general braxton bragg’s confederate army of tennessee. At the battle of perryville in october 1862, hardee commanded the left wing of bragg’s army. In his arguably most successful battle, stones river on december 31st 1862 his reinforced second corps launched a massive surprise assault that drove union forces under major general mccook, then serving as a wing commander for major general william s. Rosecrans and, his army of the cumberland. After the tullahoma campaign, hardee lost patience with the irascible bragg and briefly commanded the department of mississippi and east louisiana under general joseph e. Johnston. During this period, he met mary foreman lewis, an alabama plantation owner, and married her in january 1864.Hardee returned to bragg’s army after the battle of chickamauga, taking over the corps of leonidas polk at chattanooga, tennessee, besieging the union army there. At the battle of chattanooga in november 1863, hardee’s corps of the army of tennessee was defeated when union troops under major general george h. Thomas assaulted the seemingly impregnable defensive lines on missionary ridge.After this disaster, hardee renewed his opposition to serving under bragg and joined a group of officers who finally convinced confederate president jefferson davis to relieve his old friend from command of the army of tennessee. General joseph e. Johnston would take over command of the army for the atlanta campaign in 1864. As johnston fought a war of maneuver and retreat against maj. Gen. William t. Sherman, the confederacy eventually lost patience with him and replaced him with the much more aggressive lt. Gen. John bell hood. Hardee could not abide hood’s reckless assaults and heavy casualties. After the battle of jonesboro that august and september, he requested a transfer and was sent to command the department of south carolina, georgia, and florida. He opposed sherman’s march to the sea as best he could with inadequate forces and, eventually evacuating savannah, georgia on december 20th 1864. As sherman turned north in the carolinas campaign, hardee took part in the battle of bentonville, north carolina in march 1865, where his only son lieutenant william joseph jr, was killed in a cavalry charge. He surrendered along with johnstons confederate forces to sherman on april 26th 1865 at durham station, north carolina. After the war, hardee settled at his wife’s alabama plantation. After returning it to working condition, the family moved to selma, alabama, where hardee worked in the warehousing and insurance businesses. He eventually became president of the selma and meridian railroad. Hardee was the co-author of the irish in america, published in 1868. He fell ill at his family’s summer retreat at white sulphur springs, west virginia, and died in wytheville, virginia on november 6th 1873. He is buried in live oak cemetery, selma alabama.