Major-general alpheus starkey williamswilliams was a general who never received much public recognition. Despite fighting in important commands, he remained a brigadier general throughout most of the war. There were three reasons likely for the situation: firstly, he was not a west point graduate, and the “old boys network” was very effective in the 19th century; secondly, during the formative months of the army of the potomac, williams was stationed in the shenandoah valley, which denied him familiarity to the high command when reputations were being established; thirdly: and perhaps most importantly, williams was never comfortable mastering the common practice of promoting himself to the public with the help of friendly newspaper correspondents. Williams did, however, communicate well with his family, and the letters he wrote throughout the war were saved and published posthumously in 1959 as the well regarded book, from the cannon’s mouth: the civil war letters of general alpheus s. Williams. Williams was born in deep river, connecticut. He graduated from yale university with a law degree in 1831. His father, who died when williams was eight years old, had left him a sizable inheritance, which he used between 1832 and 1836 for extensive travel in the united states and europe. Upon his return, he settled in detroit, michigan, which was a booming frontier town in 1836. He established himself as a lawyer and married the daughter of a prominent family, jane hereford, with whom he produced five children, two of whom died as infants. Jane herself died young as well, in 1849, at the age of 30.Williams had a variety of careers in detroit. He was elected probate judge of wayne county, michigan; in 1842, president of the bank of st. Clair; in 1843, the owner and editor of the detroit advertiser daily newspaper; from 1849 to 1853, postmaster of detroit. When williams arrived in detroit in 1836, he joined a company in the michigan militia and maintained a connection to the military activities of the city for years. In 1847, he was appointed lieutenant of a regiment destined for the mexican-american war, but it arrived too late to see any action. He also served as the president of the state’s military board and in 1859 was a major in the detroit light guard. At the outbreak of the civil war in 1861, williams was involved in training the first army volunteers in the state. He was promoted to brigadier general of volunteers on may 17, 1861. His first assignment after leaving the training camps was as a brigade commander in maj. Gen. Nathaniel banks’s division of the army of the potomac, from october 1861 to march 1862. He then assumed division command in the v corps of the army of the potomac, as of march 13, 1862. This division was transferred to the department of the shenandoah from april to june of that year. Williams and banks were sent to fight maj. Gen. Thomas j. “stonewall” jackson in the shenandoah valley and were thoroughly outmaneuvered, allowing jackson to bottle them up in the valley with his much smaller force.On june 26, williamss division was transferred to the army of virginia, under maj. Gen. John pope, for the northern virginia campaign. In the battle of cedar mountain, banks’s corps was again up against jackson, and was again defeated. Williams’ division did not reach the second battle of bull run until after the battle was over.The division later rejoined the army of the potomac as the 1st division of the xii corps and marched north in the maryland campaign to the battle of antietam. On the way, troops from the division found the famous confederate “lost dispatch,” special order 191, that revealed gen. Robert e. Lee’s plan for the campaign and gave maj. Gen. George b. Mcclellan key insights on how to defeat lee’s divided army. The division was heavily engaged at sharpsburg, once again up against jackson on the confederate left flank. The corps commander, maj. Gen. Joseph k. Mansfield, was killed early at antietam, and williams assumed temporary command. The corps suffered 25% casualties in assaulting jackson, and brig. Gen. George s. Greene’s division was forced to withdraw from its advanced position at the dunker church. Maj. Gen. Henry w. Slocum replaced williams as permanent corps commander immediately after the battle.Williams’ division missed the next major battle for the army of the potomac, the battle of fredericksburg, because it was engaged in defending the potomac river in the reserve. In the battle of chancellorsville, on may 2, 1863, stonewall jackson’s corps executed a surprise flanking movement and smashed into the right flank of the army of the potomac, severely damaging the unsuspecting xi corps. The neighboring division, under williams, entrenched hastily and was able to stop the confederate advance before it overran the entire army, but it suffered 1,500 casualties in the process.In the battle of gettysburg, williams’ division arrived on the battlefield late in the afternoon of july 1, 1863, and occupied benner’s hill, east of the town of gettysburg. On july 2, the xii corps took up positions on culp’s hill, the right flank of the union line. At this point, due to a command misunderstanding, henry slocum believed that he was in command of the “right wing” of the army, consisting of the xi and xii corps. Therefore, williams assumed temporary command of the xii corps and controlled it for the rest of the battle. Brigadier general thomas ruger took command of williams’ division. On the afternoon of july 2, a massive attack by longstreet on the union’s left flank caused army commander major general george g. Meade to order williams to transfer his entire corps to reinforce the left, in the vicinity of little round top. Williams convinced meade of the importance of culp’s hill and managed to retain one brigade, under greene, in their defensive positions. In a heroic defense, greene and his brigade withstood the assault of major general edward “allegheny” johnson’s confederate division (the “stonewall division”) throughout the night, until the remaining brigades of the xii corps returned. Early on july 3, williams launched an attack against the confederates who had occupied some of the entrenchments on the hill and, after a seven-hour battle, regained his original line. Unfortunately for williams, general slocum was late in writing his official report of the battle, and meade submitted his report for the army without acknowledging the critical contributions that williams and xii corps made to the union defense.In september 1863, the union army in tennessee was defeated at the battle of chickamauga and two corps were sent west to help them as they were besieged in chattanoogathe xi and xii corps. (they later were combined due to their small sizes into a new xx corps, army of the cumberland.) williams division did not reach chattanooga, but guarded railroads in eastern tennessee. However, it did join maj. Gen. William t. Sherman as part of xx corps in the atlanta campaign and fought with distinction in a number of battles, particularly the battle of resaca. Williams was wounded in the arm at the battle of new hope church on may 26, 1864. His division followed sherman through his march to the sea and the carolinas campaign. In these campaigns williams lead xx corps until, following the battle of bentonville, joseph a. Mower was given command. Williams resumed leading his division. During this period, williams received a brevet promotion to major general on january 12, 1865.Throughout much of the war, williams had two horses, one named yorkshire and the other plug ugly. Yorkshire being showier, williams often preferred the larger plug ugly for more grueling duty. During the battle of chancellorsville, a confederate shell landed in the thick mud underneath plug ugly, the subsequent explosion of which sent both horse and rider into the air. Remarkably, williams was uninjured, and, perhaps most remarkably, the horse escaped with a few minor injuries. Plug ugly eventually became too worn for further use, and in 1864 williams sold him for $50. Williams learned that the horse died not long after the sale. After the war, william served as a military administrator in southern arkansas until he left the service on january 15, 1866. He returned to michigan, but faced financial difficulties that forced him to take a post as the u.S. Minister at san salvador, a position in which he served until 1869. He ran for governor of michigan in 1870, but was not elected. Williams was elected as a democrat to the 45th united states congress from michigan’s 1st congressional district, serving from march 4, 1875, to december 21, 1878. For part of his time in congress he served as chairman of the committee on the district of columbia. Williams suffered a stroke on december 21, 1878, and died in the u.S. Capitol building, and is buried in elmwood cemetery in detroit.An equestrian memorial to williams by sculptor henry shrady stands in belle isle, in the detroit river, next to his home town of detroit. Williams avenue in gettysburg national battlefield park is named for him.